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Second Nationally Determined Contribution of Nepal, 2020

In Nepal's Second Nationally Determined Contribution, for the timeframe from 1 January 2021 to 31 December 2030, it submits several mitigation and adaptation measures towards achieving net-zero greenhouse gas emission by 2050. It targets expanding clean energy generation from 1,400 MW to 15,000 MW, of which 5-10% will be generated from mini and micro-hydro power, solar, wind and bio-energy. Sales of electric vehicles (e-vehicles) in 2025 will be 25% of all private passenger vehicles sales. This would result in around a 9% decrease in fossil fuel dependency. Also, By 2030, develop 200 km of the electric rail network to support public commuting and mass transportation of goods, ensure 25% of households use electric stoves as their primary mode of cooking, install 500,000 improved cookstoves, specifically in rural areas, and install an additional 200,000 household biogas plants and 500 large-scale biogas plants (institutional/industrial/municipal/community). These three combined targets can reduce emissions from approximately 1,999 Gg CO2 eq. under business as usual (BaU) in 2025 to approximately 1,774 Gg CO2 eq. Moreover, by 2030, maintain 45% of the total area of the country under forest cover (including other wooded land limited to less than 4%). Finally, by 2025, 380 million liters/day of wastewater will be treated before being discharged, and 60,000 cubic meters/year of faecal sludge will be managed. These two activities will reduce around 258 Gg CO2 eq. compared to BaU.