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The relationship between human rights and contributions to knowledge has been at the centre of important debates over the past several years. The International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural rights is in many ways the most crucial legal instrument through which the relationship between the two fields can be examined.1 Firstly it recognize for instance the rights to health food, technology, which are some of the rights whose realization can be affected in developing countries that adopt or strengthen intellectual property rights framework based on the commitments they take under the TRIPS(Trade related aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) or other intellectual property. Secondly, it recognizes at Article 15(1) C, the need to reward individuals and groups that make specific intellectual contributions that benefit society.
In Cambodia's Updated Nationally Determined Contribution, it submits an estimated emissions reduction of approximately 64.6 million CO2e/year. In terms of adaptation, all line ministries with adaptation relevance submitted their proposed priority actions.
Fiji's Updated Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) reaffirms the 2030 target set in its Intended NDC. Specifically, it commits to a reduction of 30% of business as usual (BAU) CO2 emissions from the energy sector by 2030 (absolute reduction as compared to reference year emissions). Of the 30% reduction of BAU baseline CO2 emissions, 10% will be achieved “unconditionally” using available resources in the country and 20% achieved “conditionally” depending on available external financing.
Nationally Determined Contribution provides sectoral enhancements in relation to its predecessor, endeavoring to reflect the highest possible ambition despite current limitations from the circumstances. Marshall Islands submits that it stands by its 2050 long term low greenhouse gas emission and climate resilient development strategy under the Paris Agreement
The development approach of the 8th Five-Year Plan (8th FYP) of Bangladesh is geared towards the main task of moving closer to the goals to attain Upper Middle Income Country (UMIC) status, the major Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) targets, and eliminate extreme poverty by FY2031. It also includes a COVID-19 Recovery plan that encompasses health and economic recovery efforts.
Nepal's Second Nationally Determined Contribution, for the timeframe from 1st January 2021 to 31st December 2030, enhances the mitigation and adaptation commitments made in its Nationally Determined Contribution submitted in October 2016. To this end, the country has developed its policy and institutional framework. In accordance with Article 4, paragraph 19 of the Paris Agreement, Nepal is formulating a long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategy by 2021. The strategy aims to achieve net-zero greenhouse gas emission by 2050.
Tonga's Second Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) submitted targets for mitigation of 13% (16 Gg) reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2030 compared to 2006 through a transition to 70% renewable electricity as well as energy efficiency measures. It also targets the establishment of a forest inventory as prerequisite to identify a GHG emission target for the 2025 NDC and planting one million trees by 2023.
The National Plan for Disaster Management is prepared based on the principles of preparedness, early warning, emergency response, and rehabilitation, reconstruction and recovery. It discusses the context, legal background, implementation status of previous plans, from which it takes off. It also discusses the likely situation of Bangladesh in the changing disaster risk context, with urbanization, industrialization, and climate change which necessitates the NPDM to be more flexible and dynamic.
The Updated Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) of Thailand maintains its target to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20% from the projected business as usual level by 2030, but with the possibility of increasing up to 25 percent under certain conditions. For the adaptation component, Thailand developed the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) with the aim of building adaptive capacity and enhancing climate resilience in six priority sectors including water resources management, agriculture and food security, tourism, public health, natural resources management, and human settlements and security.
The National Agricultural Mechanization Policy of Bangladesh envisions the transition to efficient, profitable and commercial agriculture through agriculture mechanization and ensuring sustainable food and nutrition security. Part of the policy is the use of renewable energy, including solar power for crop irrigation and vegetable drying, while using combined biomass (agriculture by-product) and solar power for power generation.